Sunday, November 23, 2014

IB0010- INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE
FALL 2014
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) /
PGDFMN – (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
IB0010- INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER
4
BK ID
B1759
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme

1 Write short notes on:
a) Measuring exchange rate movements

Answer : Measuring the exchange rate
Exchange rates are expressed in various ways:

Spot Exchange Rate - the spot rate is the rate for a currency at today’s market prices

Forward Exchange Rate - a forward rate involves the delivery of currency at a specified time in the future at an agreed rate. Companies wanting to reduce risks from exchange rate volatility can buy their currency ‘forward’ on the market


b) Factors that influence exchange rates

Answer : Determinants of Exchange Rates
Numerous factors determine exchange rates, and all are related to the trading relationship between two countries. Remember, exchange rates are relative, and are expressed as a comparison of the currencies of two countries. The following are some of the principal determinants of the exchange rate between two countries. Note that these factors are in no particular order; like many aspects of economics, the relative importance of these factors is subject to much debate.
1. Differentials in Inflation



2 The key component of the financial system is the money market that acts as a fulcrum of monetary operations.
Write down the important points under each category mentioned below.

a) Functions performed by money market
Answer : There are two types of financial markets viz., the money market and the capital market. The money market in that part of a financial market which deals in the borrowing and lending of short term loans generally for a period of less than or equal to 365 days. It is a mechanism to clear short term monetary transactions in an economy.

Money market is an important part of the economy. It plays very significant functions. As mentioned above it is basically a market for short term monetary transactions. Thus it has to provide facility for adjusting liquidity to the banks, business corporations, non-banking financial institutions (NBFs) and other financial institutions along with investors.

The major functions of money market are given below:-


b) International interest rates
Answer : In many industrial countries the domestic impact of interest rate developments abroad has become an increasingly sensitive question. Outside the United States the issue has centred on the possible influence of high or rising interest rates on a still fragile economic recovery. When inflation expectations are unknown, interest rate levels are, of course, difficult to interpret, and partly for this reason interest rates have come to play a smaller role as explicit objectives of monetary policy. In some - though not all - countries nominal interest rates are nevertheless felt to be uncomfortably high in relation to rates of inflation.


c) Standardized Global Market regulations.
Answer : The financial crisis of 2007 revealed fundamental weaknesses in the structure of financial regulation. In response, policymakers and regulators have embarked on an ambitious regulatory reform agenda that aims to achieve as much global co-ordination and consistency between regional reform efforts as possible.
How successful attempts at international co-ordination and consistency have been deserves further examination. Despite most of the regulatory changes taking place under the auspices of the G20, variations in the approaches taken on both sides of the Atlantic and in Asia can be observed and are increasingly significant. The general objectives might be consistent, but the different regulatory paradigms in the US, Europe and Asia have become increasingly visible and the resulting changes are, many fear, becoming less co-ordinated



3 Thousands of years back the concept of bartering between parties was prevalent, when the concept of money had not evolved. Explain  counter trade with examples

Answer :  Trading between nations has been happening since time began. In ancient time nations traded silk, spices, cloth and animals of all kinds. Today nation trade food items, defense equipment, metals, electronics etc. The products might have changed but the basic concept is still the same as the underlining need which brings together two nations in a trade relationship still exists.

One such method of trading between nations is called counter trade. Counter trade is an import / export relationship between nations or large companies in which good and/or services are exchanged for goods and services instead of money. In some cases monetary evaluations are made for accounting purposes.

Types of counter trade

Barter: It is the exchange of goods and services for goods and services without any use of money. Like the trade relationship between China and


4 There are different techniques of exposure management. One is the Managing Transaction Exposure and the other one is the managing operating exposure So you have to explain on both Managing Transaction Exposure and Managing Operating Exposure.

Answer : ‘Transaction Exposure’ is a risk which is faced by the organizations which are involved in international trade especially when they enter into the financial obligations. The risk which is faced by the companies is about the changes occurring in the currency exchange rates after they have entered into trade obligations in the international market. Many companies which face such a situation adopt hedging strategy which allows them to get locked in an exchange rate by using forward rates to evade the exposure of companies to risk. ‘Transaction Exposure’ is also called ‘Contractual Exposure’ which is about the


5 Every firm is going on concern, whether domestic or MNC. Explain the techniques of capital budgeting and the steps to determine cash flows.

Answer : Capital investments are long-term investments in which the assets involved have useful lives of multiple years. For example, constructing a new production facility and investing in machinery and equipment are capital investments. Capital budgeting is a method of estimating the financial viability of a capital investment over the life of the investment.

A Explanation of techniques of capital budgeting:

There are several capital budgeting analysis methods that can be used to determine the economic feasibility of a capital investment. They include the Payback Period, Discounted Payment Period, Net Present Value, Profitability Index, Internal Rate of Return, and Modified Internal Rate of Return.



6 Write short note on:

American Depository Receipts(ADR)
Answer : An American Depository Receipt, or ADR, is a security issued by a U.S. depository bank to domestic buyers as a substitute for direct ownership of stock in foreign companies. An ADR can represent one or more shares, or a fraction of a share, of a non-U.S. company. Individual shares of a foreign corporation represented by an ADR are called American Depositary Shares (ADSs).

An ADR is a convenient way for companies whose stock is listed on a foreign exchange to cross-list their stock in the United States and make their stock available for purchase by U.S. investors, as these receipts can be traded on U.S. exchanges.


Global Depository Receipts(GDR)
Answer : Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs) are negotiable certificates issued by depositary banks which represent ownership of a given number of a company’s shares which can be listed and traded independently from the underlying shares. These instruments are typically used by companies from emerging markets and marketed to professional investors only.

GDRs can be listed on either the Main Market via a Standard Listing or on the Professional Securities Market. A GDR will be used to access two or more markets, usually London and the US. They are often launched for capital raising purposes, so

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IB0011– International Marketing

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE
FALL 2014
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) /
PGDIB – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
IB0011– International Marketing
BK ID
B1199
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.NO.1 Discuss the different management orientations of a company. How does it affect international marketing?

Answer : Marketing Concept
One of the five marketing management orientations is the marketing concept. The marketing concept is based on the belief that a company must create, deliver and market products more efficiently than the competition in order to turn a profit. To implement this concept, managers focus on researching the target market and customer's needs along with marketing the product in an integrated manner.

Production Concept
The production concept, the oldest marketing concept, is based on a belief that consumers prefer low prices and product availability. To implement the production concept, managers concentrate on low costs, mass distribution and high production efficiency. The production concept is mostly useful in developing countries where




Q.2. Discuss how culture plays an important role in international marketing. Give some examples of advertisements which failed due to lack of cultural understanding.

Answer : How Culture Plays an Important Role in Global Marketing
When it comes to branding yourself to a domestic market, your ability to connect with your target audience is greatly enhanced by sharing a common language and culture with them. Conversely, branding to markets beyond your borders is another story and presents a unique set of linguistic and cultural challenges that must be addressed and overcome.
Lost in Translation                                                 
Perhaps the biggest obstacle to cross-cultural personal branding success is a lack of understanding of how people communicate in other cultures. In fact, one of the most common assumptions is that a straight translation of marketing, advertising and public relations materials are enough to conform to the unique needs and values of diverse



Q3.  Explain different types of cost based pricing.

Answer: Cost-based pricing involves calculating the cost of the product, and then adding a percentage mark-up to determine price.

Cost-plus pricing is the simplest pricing method. A firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds on a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. This appears in two forms: the first, full cost pricing, takes into consideration both variable and fixed costs and adds a % markup. The other is direct cost pricing, which is variable costs plus a % markup. The latter is only used in periods of high competition as this method usually leads to a loss in the long run.This method, although simple, does not take demand into account, and there is no way of determining if potential customers will purchase the product



Q4. Tobacco companies are targeting China as Chinese are heavy smokers. Which segmentation is this and what are the other international market segmentations?

Answer: INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION
Market segmentation is the process in marketing of dividing a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Because each segment is fairly homogeneous in their needs and attitudes, they are likely to respond similarly to a given marketing strategy. That is, they are likely to have similar feelings and ideas about a marketing mix comprised of a given product or service, sold at a given price, distributed in a certain way, and promoted in a certain way. Broadly, markets can be divided



5 Write short notes on:
                                                        
a) e Marketing
Answer : E-marketing refers to the use of the Internet and digital media capabilities to help sell your products or services. These digital technologies are a valuable addition to traditional marketing approaches regardless of the size and type of your business. E-marketing is also referred to as Internet marketing (i-marketing), online marketing or web-marketing.

As with conventional marketing, e-marketing is creating a strategy that helps businesses deliver the right messages and product/services to the right


b) Spot and forward rates
Answer : Spot Rates
In finance, a spot contract, spot transaction, or simply "spot," is a contract of buying or selling a commodity, security, or currency for settlement (payment and delivery) on the spot date, which is normally two business days after the trade date. The settlement price (or rate) is called a "spot price" or "spot rate. "



Q6. Discuss the role and activities of World Bank.

Answer: As a development institution, the World Bank supports two broad goals in South East Europe: (i) poverty reduction and (ii) economic and social development, the latter in support of the countries ambition to join the Europen Union. The central vehicle for supporting the national reform program of each country is the so-called Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). Based on an assessment of the country's priorities, past portfolio performance and creditworthiness, the CAS sets strategic priorities and determines the level and composition of financial and technical assistance that the Bank seeks to provide the country. The fra
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IB0012 – Management of Multinational Corporations

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL
2014
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) /
PGDIB – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
IB0012 – Management of Multinational Corporations
BK ID
B1200
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


1 Discuss the relationship between international business and international organizations. What could be the objectives of going international?
Answer : International business
Every major industry has been affected by international business trends, innovations and trade. Foster's international business curriculum prepares students for careers in export and import firms, international banking, multinational business, government agencies, international organizations and more.

International business comprises all commercial transactions (private and governmental, sales, investments, logistics, and transportation) that take place between two or more regions, countries and nations beyond their political boundaries. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit; governments undertake them for profit and for political reasons.[1] It refers to all those business activities which involve cross border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transaction




2 Discuss the following theories of international trade:
a) Comparative cost advantage theory

Answer : According to Smith’s Theory trade would take place between countries only if the country enjoys an absolute cost advantage in production of a particular commodity over another.

However, it is seen in some cases that country A enjoys a produces all commodities at a cost lesser than country B. But, despite this country A ends up importing some commodities from country B. Ricardo explained this using his theory of Comparative Cost Advantage.




3 Many countries are apprehensive about permitting MNCs operations. What are the possible reasons for this?
Answer : In an attempt to cut costs, many multinational corporations (MNCs) export their polluting activities through subsidiaries established in less developed countries. This exporting of pollutants is a crucial environmental issue[i]. Environmental pollution does not necessarily need to cross a country’s borders in the form of a substance, it can also pass the frontier through a decision taken in one state leading to environmental consequences in another (Scovazzi, 1991: 395). To put it differently, environmental



4 Compare the management styles in USA and Japan.

Answer : Japanese management style probably holds a more important key for a successful company than the American one. However, there are some approaches in the Japanese management that have their own flaws which could be fixed by learning and adapting some
approaches from American companies.
When it comes to employees and their job responsibilities in Japan and America, the statement that American team leaders are the only ones responsible for the whole team and the project they work on is not supported properly. In American corporations, each employee is responsible for his/her job; the team leader is not the only taking



5 Explain the scope of comparative management.

Answer : Comparative management is the study of various management principles, and how they apply from one situation to another. Such as with international companies. How these principles relate from one country to another. Management of international corporations is not a one size fits all scenario. There are many factors that will need to be taken into account. Among those are customs and social norms that vary from country to country. In some countries, care must be taken to address certain religious customs of the workforce.


Comparative management analyzes the extent to which



6 Write short notes on:
a) Ethical issues in international management
Answer :  There is an increasing emphasis on the corporate responsibility of large organisations from developed nations and the way they operate in third world countries. Many nations now impose their ethical standards on developing countries even though they themselves have been guilty of arguably unethical practices in the past. For example, the poor working conditions suffered in the third world were commonplace during the industrialisation of many western economies.
Some of the most common international ethical issues surround the environment, child labour, working standards and conditions,



b) Social responsibility
Answer : Being Socially Responsible means that people and organisations must behave ethically and with sensitivity toward social, cultural, economic and environmental issues. Striving for social responsibility helps individuals, organisations and governments have a positive impact on development, business and society with a positive contribution to bottom-line results.

Social Responsibility can be “negative,” in that it is a responsibility to refrain from acting (resistance stance) or it can be “positive,” meaning there is a responsibility to act (proactive stance). Being socially responsible  not only requires participating in socially responsible activities like recycling, volunteering and mentoring, but to actually make it a lifestyle. Only through a commitment to embrace and embed social responsibility into your personal value and belief system can you truly become socially responsible in all you do.
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IB0013 –Export Import management

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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE
FALL  2014
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) /
PGDIB – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
IB0013 –Export Import management
BK ID
B1201
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




1 Describe in brief the export packaging and packing. Explain with examples the purpose of marking.
Answer : An important stage after manufacturing of goods or their procurement is their preparation for shipment which involves packaging and labelling of goods to be exported. Proper packaging and labelling not only makes the final product look attractive but also save a huge amount of money by saving the product from wrong handling the export process.





2 What are the various modes of payment by the importer? Discuss.
Modes of payment
 Answer : : Consignment Purchase
Consignment purchase terms can be the most beneficial method of payment for the importer. In this method of purchase, importer makes the payment only once the goods or imported items are sold to the end user. In case of no selling, the same item is returned to the foreign supplier. Consignment purchase is considered the most risky and time taking method of payment for the exporter.



3 List the Principal and auxiliary export documents. Explain any two auxiliary export documents.
Answer : Principal and auxiliary export documents:

Both principal and auxiliary documents comes under the category of commercial documents. Documents required for an international sale can vary significantly from transaction to transaction, depending on the destination and the product being shipped. At a minimum, there will be two documents: the invoice and the transport document. Out of 16 commercial documents , there are 8 principal and rest are auxiliary documents.



4 Discuss the objectives and components of Electronic data interchange.
Answer : The electronic data interchange process is the computer-to-computer exchange of business documents between companies. EDI replaces the faxing and mailing of paper documents.

EDI documents use specific computer record formats that are based on widely accepted standards. However, each company will use the flexibility allowed by the standards in a unique way that fits their business needs.


5 Explain the risks covered and not covered under credit risk insurance.

Answer : Risks covered by Standard Policies fall into two categories – Commercial Risks and Political Risks.

Commercial Risks which includes Insolvency of the buyer, Protracted default in payment ( Importer has to pay within four months of due date) and Under special circumstances specified in the policy, buyer’s failure to accept the goods though there is no fault on the part of exporter.
Political Risks
What are the clauses included in Political Risks under policies issued by ECGC?


6 Write short notes on:

a) Pre shipment finance

Answer : Pre-shipment finance releases funding to accommodate the transit of goods before the exporter receives payment by providing up to 50% of the order value.

Pre-shipment / Packing Credit also known as ‘Packing credit’ is a loan/ advance granted to an exporter for financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing or packing of goods prior to shipment. Packing credit can also be extended as working capital assistance to meet expenses such as wages, utility payments, travel expenses etc;



b) Post shipment finance

Answer : Post-shipment finance advances capital upon the shipment of goods, bridging the gap in the interim whilst awaiting payment.

'Post-shipment Credit' means any loan or advance granted or any other credit provided by a bank to an exporter of goods / services from India from
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Tuesday, November 18, 2014

HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION 2

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL
 







Q. 1. Any Four Questions(4X 10=40)

1. Hospital waste causing environmental pollution and leadingto negative recycling with serious medical and healthconsequences- Discuss at length.
Answer:Hospital is a place of almighty, a place to serve the patient. Since beginning, the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Now it is a well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the "Hospital waste" generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Hospital acquired infection, transfusion transmitted diseases, rising incidence of Hepatitis B, and HIV, increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin, Hydrochloric acid etc. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital

2. Keeping the Hospital staff equipped with latest knowledgein the new millennium in clinical, technical and managerialcompetence is the need of the hour. Identify some newmethods to achieve the objective.
Answer:


3. List out the various areas of Hospital Administration. Reviewthem in your own style.
Answer: Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers -- sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators -- and their assistants. Administrations range in size, and the duties of the administrator vary with the size and complexity of the hospital.
·         Range of Duties: Administrators are liaisons between hospital boards, other administrators and medical staff. They coordinate hospital activities and formulate its overall politices. Some administrators are in charge of hiring doctors and other staff, performing employee evaluations and directing staff meetings. They may also be responsible for the hospital's public relations and fundraising programs. Because administrators develop programs for teaching and research hospitals, they must keep up with the latest advances in medicine.
·         Administration Sizes: Large hospitals have several administrators and assistant administrators managing different departments while one administrator is in charge overall. In smaller hospitals, one administrator may be in

4. What do you understand by the term MBO? Apply theconcept to the Hospitals with appropriate examples.
Answer: Management by objectives (or MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. Organizational goals and planning flow top-down through the organization and are translated into personal goals for organizational members. The technique was first championed by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s.
The core concept of MBO is planning, which means that an organization and its members are not merely reacting to events and problems but are instead being proactive. MBO requires that employees set measurable personal goals based upon the organizational goals. For example, a goal for a civil engineer may be to complete the infrastructure of a housing division within the next twelve months. The personal goal aligns with the organizational goal of completing


5. Based on your study, establish certain Managementtechniques for the administrative Improvement andAdministrative Reforms of Hospitals.
Answer:Administration or to be very specific,the Bureaucracy from a traditional point of view has always been change resistant,opaque and rigid. Therefore,in today's times,where the world is become a global village and the concept of Welfare State and Good Governance looms large it has become imperative to transform the administrative machinery and reform it for the best results in order for it to remain important and not become obsolete.Therefore, administrative improvement and reforms are a priority. So, today we will discuss this very important aspect of administration.
ADMINISTRATIVE IMPROVEMENT:
It is an artificial inducement of administrative transformation against resistance.A.F Leaman asserts that Administrative reforms are an effort to mitigate the gap between reality and what is desirable of the administration. And this transformation is for a



Case Studies(20X2=40)
Case No.1
Issues to be Discussed

Q. 1. Facts of the case.
Answer: The hospital's employment specialist assists applicants in applying for appropriate jobs based on their qualifications and communicates with them throughout the application process. In several departments, applicants undergo a peer interview to ensure that the appropriate candidate is selected for the position.
Once hired, new employees attend an orientation where they learn the importance of organizational values, expectations of employees, customer service, etc. The hospital's values play a crucial role in the culture of the organization, and employees are expected to continually exhibit these values and behaviors.


Q. 2. By making additional study, Analyse the means to achievethe major objectives as stated in the case.
Answer: Turnover in any company is normal. Exciting job offers or personal reasons cause many employees to turn in their resignations. However, when a high percentage of your employees choose to leave the company, you are faced with the consequences. High turnover rates result in your time spent finding a replacement and walking that individual through the training process. Additionally, your company’s productivity suffers as work is placed on hold until the new hire’s training is complete, or as the new person makes large errors while getting accustomed to the work. The hiring process and other productivity losses may also result in high, unnecessary costs.
·         Decrease turnover rate:When you create a job description for applicants, be accurate and truthful. Explain in detail what the job entails and do not be vague about the expectations of the position. Many employees accept job
·          
·          

Q. 3. How would you address the workforce problems as given inthe case effectively?
Answer: The organization's culture has created a pleasing environment for both employees and patients. Employees are on a first name basis with one another, they acknowledge each other when passing in the hall, and they always take time to help their colleagues.
This program strives to open the lines of communication between administration and employees by holding monthly luncheons with administrators and employees. Each month, several employees are selected at random to attend the luncheon. The luncheons give employees the opportunity to share ideas and concerns with administrators; administration's motto is "If you don't say it, I can't hear it." This ethic allows employees to have ownership in the



Case No 2
Hospital Waste Management: A Case Study ofChandigarh Administration
Issues to be discussed
Q. 1. Facts of the Case.
Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.
The “City beautiful”, Chandigarh has made the implementation of the bio-medical waste rule, 1998 possible by installation of incinerators in PGI, Medical College & Hospital, Sector-32 and in the process of starting incinerator in General Hospital, Sector-16, Chandigarh.
Private Nursing Homes also produce almost equal amount of Solid Waste and bio-medical waste, but they don’t have any independent facility available


Q. 2. Analyze the different categories of waste as discussed inthe case in your style by making additional study.
Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.
The waste can be classified into the following categories
1.       General Waste:This includes domestic type of

Q. 3. Comment on the framed categories which are 10 innumber.
Answer:Ten numbers of categories have been framed:
(i) Human anatomical waste: All human anatomical wastes and all wastes that are human tissues, organs, or body parts removed by trauma, during surgery, autopsy, birth, research studies, or another hospital procedure, and which are intended for disposal. Pathological waste differs from anatomical waste in that these are typically samples of tissues that are examined in a laboratory setting to understand the nature of the disease or make a diagnosis. For the most part, pathological waste refers to very small tissues sections and body material derived from biopsies or surgical procedures that are then examined in the lab. Anatomical wastes are typically distinguished as recognizable human organs, tissue and body parts, and may require special treatment under some state regulations. Some states do not consider hair, teeth and nails to be pathological/anatomical waste.
(ii) Animal waste: Many facilities have


Q. 4. How would you deal with the problem of Hospital wastemanagement (Add on to the suggestions given in the case)
Answer: Proper management of various types of waste is essential for the upkeep of hospital sanitation. Segregation at source, safe transfer, requisite treatment and disposal through cost effective technologies can bring about significant changes. Infectious waste from hospital and health care Establishments contain pathological wastes, used disposable, semi-wet products (the used blood bags etc.) This waste is often thrown into the community bins instead of being properly treated and disposed-off.
Presently in most Government hospitals and Pvt. Nursing Homes there is no specialized system of handling, collection, transportation and disposal of

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