Monday, February 12, 2018

ISBM Subject: General Management

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Name: Leema Noori                                                                                                                          Marks : 80
Course: Bachelors in Management Studies (BMS)
Subject: General Management



Answer the following question.


Question. 1. Explain some of the leadership styles (10 marks)

Answer: A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields. Studies on leadership style are conducted in the military field, expressing an approach that stresses a holistic view of leadership, including how a leader's physical presence determines how others perceive that leader. The factors of physical presence in this context include military


Question. 2. Write a note on organization culture. (10 marks)

Answer: Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization". According to Needle (2004), organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, environment,



Question. 3. What are the factors affecting the degree of decentralization? (10 marks)

Answer: For determining the Degree of Decentralization, a manager must consider eleven factors

Managers cannot be ordinarily for or against decentralization of authority. They may prefer to delegate authority, or they may like to make all decisions.

A well-known despot in a certain large enterprise, who would like



Question. 4. What are the types of strategies? (10 marks)

Answer: Specific strategies, such as identifying product strengths, adjusting pricing, or acquiring another business, have historically been used to get a small enterprise off the ground. Understanding these strategies, and skillfully implementing them, can help entrepreneurs achieve success.

New companies often face unique challenges. Specific



Question. 5. What are policies? What are the characteristics of policies? (10 marks)

Answer: Efficient management always tries set objectives which are the goals towards the attainment of which all activities of the management are directed. But to direct the activities mode of thought and lay down rules and principle are required for attaining objectives. That is why policy may be named as thoughts and principles which guide the over all activities of the organization. To accomplish objectives set by management requires


Question. 6. What are the approaches to planning? (10 marks)

Answer: All organizations plan; the only difference is their approach. Prior to starting a new strategic planning process it will be necessary to access the past planning approach that has been used within the organization and determine how the organization's cultural may have been affected. Addressing these cultural issues is critical to the success of the current planning process.

The four possible approaches to planning are:

·       Reactive - past oriented: Reactive planning is an active attempt to turn back the clock to the past. The past, no matter how bad, is preferable to the present. And definitely better than the future will be. The past is romanticized and there is a desire to return to the "good old days." These people seek to undo the change that has created the present, and they fear the future, which they attempt to prevent.


Question. 7. What are the approaches to the study of management? (10 marks)

Answer: The contingency approach to management holds that management techniques should be dependent upon the circumstances. In this lesson, you will learn what the contingency approach to management is and the key elements of contingency management.

Definition



Question. 8. Is management an art, science and profession (10 marks)

Answer: To conclude whether management is science, art or profession, we must understand the features and meanings of science, art and profession and compare them with management meaning and features.

Management as a Science: Science can be defined as a systematic and organised body of knowledge based on logically observed findings, facts and events.

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